Black History

‘The black history of Britain is by its nature a global history. Yet too often it is seen as being only the history of migration, settlement and community formation in Britain itself.’ 
– David Olusoga, Black and British: A Forgotten History

Black histories are a vital part of England’s story, reaching back many centuries. There is evidence of African people in Roman Britain as far back as the 3rd century AD, and black communities have been present since at least 1500.

English Heritage is committed to telling the story of England in full. Black history, from antiquity to the 21st century, helps us to reflect on the connections between the past and present, and the importance of history to our understanding of what’s happening today.


  • Dido Elizabeth Belle

    Born in the Caribbean, Dido Belle was a mixed-race woman raised as part of an aristocratic family in Georgian Britain.  

  • The Somerset case

    The Somerset v Stewart ruling in 1772 was a landmark in the progress towards the abolition of slavery in England, bringing the injustice of the slave trade to public attention.

  • Black Lives in 18th-century Britain

    We take a look at the lives of black people – including soldiers, servants and independent citizens – who lived in the shadow of slavery in 18th-century Britain.

  • The Black Prisoners of Portchester

    Read the extraordinary story of a group of over 2,500 prisoners of war taken to Portchester Castle from St Lucia in 1796.

  • James Chappell

    The heroic actions of James Chappell after an explosion on Guernsey in 1672 were enshrined in legend.

  • Sarah Forbes Bonetta

    Read the extraordinary life story of the African child who was ‘gifted’ to Queen Victoria and became her protégée.

  • Lead Figurine of an African Warrior

    Find out how recent research into a Roman figurine of an African found at Wall Roman Site in Staffordshire has resulted in a reinterpretation of its identity.

  • Voices of the Windrush Generation

    Author and historian Colin Grant shares the story of a generation of pioneers in their own words, tracing their history from the 1947 British Nationality Act to the Windrush Scandal of 2018.

A watercolour painting of a Caribbean plantation with mountains in the background
An illustration from 1820–21 of the Whitney Plantation in Jamaica, owned by William Ward, 3rd Viscount Dudley, whose descendants acquired Witley Court in 1833. Romanticised illustrations such as this do not depict the reality of life for the enslaved
© Public domain licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0 www.slaveryimages.org

Transatlantic Slavery and Abolition

From the 17th through to the early 19th century, Britain played a central role in the transatlantic slave economy. At the core of this inhumane trade was the kidnap and exploitation of enslaved Africans to provide forced labour for the plantation economies of the Caribbean.

Discover how traces of transatlantic slavery can be found across many English Heritage sites, and explore the stories of individuals whose lives were touched by enslavement, including those who campaigned for its eventual abolition.

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Blue Plaques

London’s famous blue plaques link the people of the past with the buildings of the present. From musicians to politicians, discover some of the pioneering black figures whose achievements are celebrated with blue plaques.

  • Ellen and William Craft

    Ellen and William Craft were African American freedom fighters who escaped from enslavement in Georgia and in 1851 fled to Britain, where they supported anti-slavery efforts.

  • J S Risien Russell

    JS Risien Russell was a pioneering figure in the emerging discipline of neurology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  • Claudia Jones

    Claudia Jones was a ceaseless campaigner for racial justice and is credited with having been among the first to bring Caribbean carnival to London.

  • Laurie Cunningham

    Laurie Cunningham was the first black footballer to play for England in a competitive match and the first Englishman to play for Real Madrid.

  • Ottobah Cugoano

    Ottobah Cugoano was an anti-slavery campaigner and one of the first formerly enslaved people to write and publish a text in the English language. 

  • Mary Seacole

    The Jamaican nurse Mary Seacole set up a hotel in the war-torn Crimea to provide shelter, food and treatment for injured soldiers.

  • Samuel Coleridge-Taylor

    The composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor achieved international fame for his trilogy of cantatas, ‘The Song of Hiawatha’.

  • John Richard Archer

    John Archer was the former Mayor of Battersea and the first black person to hold a senior public office in London.

  • Elisabeth Welch

    Singer Elisabeth Welch was one of Britain’s best-loved interpreters of popular song. Her recording career spanned eight decades and encompassed New York, Paris and London.

  • Sir Learie Constantine

    The cricketer and statesman Sir Learie Constantine became Britain’s first black peer in 1969.

  • Jimi Hendrix

    The guitarist and songwriter Jimi Hendrix became an overnight sensation with the release of his band’s first single, ‘Hey Joe’, in 1966.

  • Bob Marley

    Bob Marley was one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. He is commemorated with a blue plaque on the house where he and The Wailers finished recording their iconic album Exodus.

  • Dr Harold Moody

    The campaigner for racial equality Dr Harold Moody founded the League of Coloured Peoples in 1931.

  • Ira Aldridge

    In 1833 Ira Aldridge became the first black actor to play Othello on a West End stage.

  • Jomo Kenyatta

    Jomo Kenyatta became the first President of Kenya after the country won independence from the British Empire in 1963.

  • Kwame Nkrumah

    Kwame Nkrumah helped secure Ghana’s independence from Britain in 1957 and became the country’s first Prime Minister and President.

  • Marcus Garvey

    Marcus Garvey was a black nationalist who became an inspirational figure for later civil rights activists.

  • Cetshwayo

    Cetshwayo kaMpande was king of the Zulus during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879. In 1882, he visited London and stayed at 18 Melbury Road in Holland Park.

  • Solomon T Plaatje

    The South African writer Solomon T Plaatje was a significant campaigner for African rights and played a pioneering role in the emergence of African literature.

Propose a blue plaque

We recognise the need to increase the racial diversity of the English Heritage blue plaques scheme in order to properly reflect London’s history. With this in mind we have set up a working group whose members will focus on nominating Black and Asian figures for blue plaques.

Public nominations are still at the heart of the scheme and the new group hopes to work with the public to uncover the stories of those whose achievements have so far been unacknowledged.

Find out how to nominate someone for a blue plaque

The English Heritage Podcast

Hannah Uzor with her painting of Sarah Forbes Bonetta
Hannah Uzor with her painting of Sarah Forbes Bonetta


In 2021 English Heritage commissioned a series of six portraits celebrating the lives of people of the African diaspora whose stories have contributed to England’s rich history. Each artist was supported by our curators and historians to creatively depict their subject.

Each painting was hung at the English Heritage site connected to its subject.

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Shout Out Loud

Shout Out Loud is English Heritage’s national youth engagement programme, delivered with our amazing partners and supported by the National Lottery Heritage Fund #KicktheDust programme. We provide a platform for young people to explore heritage sites and collections across England, helping them to uncover untold stories from our past. 

  • Freedom and Revolution

    In 1807 a play was staged at Portchester Castle about the revolution in Haiti. In collaboration with the National Youth Theatre we are reimagining this play, switching the focus away from the original colonial male perspective, and retelling it from a Black female point of view.

  • Stories, Sites and Sounds

    Members of the Chineke! Junior Orchestra explored the lives of three historical figures, including Sarah Forbes Bonetta and Dido Belle, and then created incredible pieces of music inspired by their stories.

  • Tilbury is the Place for Me

    Working with Kinetika, Anthony Joseph, Kinetika Bloco band and the Migration Museum, this project explored Tilbury’s migration history and sense of place, by creating a new calypso song.

Sarah Forbes Bonetta
Sarah Forbes Bonetta, protégée of Queen Victoria
© National Portrait Gallery, London

Teaching Resource: Black Lives in Britain

The story of black lives in Britain is long, varied and complex. To help you chart the story of black Britons, we’ve brought together teaching resources from across our sites to share with you.

Get involved by doing your own research, trying some of our suggested activities, and enjoying our selection of videos and podcasts.

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